The Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is a significant milestone for students in Singapore. One of the essential components of this examination is English grammar and spelling. To help students ace PSLE English exam with ease, we have compiled the ultimate cheat sheet for PSLE English grammar and spelling. This cheat sheet will not only serve as a valuable study tool but also help in building a strong foundation for future academic success. So, let’s dive in and explore this cheat sheet!
The Ultimate Cheat Sheet for PSLE English Exam: Grammar rules
Subject verb agreement
The subject and verb must agree in number.
The words and phrases “with”, “as well as”, “together with”, “along with” are not part of the subject and the verb agrees with the subject.
Two subjects joined by” and” are plural.
with collective nouns, the verb might be singular or plural (UK), depending on meaning.
Two subjects joined by “or/not”, “either…or neither…nor”, “not only…but also” take the verb that agrees with the subject closest to it.
In sentences beginning with “here” or “there”, the true subject follows the verb.
The verb is singular if the subject is a singular indefinite pronoun such as each, either, no one, everyone. The verb is plural if the subject is a plural indefinite pronoun such as several, few, both, many.
use a singular verb for expressions of measurement, time, money and weight when the amount is considered one unit.
Plural form subjects with singular meaning take a singular verb such as mumps, measles, statistics, civics.
Titles of single entities (books, organizations, countries) are always singular.
Conversion of direct speech to indirect speech and vice versa
The conversion of direct speech to indirect speech and vice versa involves changing the verb tense, pronouns, and time expressions to reflect the change in perspective. Here are the rules for converting direct speech to indirect speech and vice versa:
Tense changes: When converting from direct speech to indirect speech, the tense of the verb in the reported speech usually changes to reflect the change in time perspective. For example, “I am happy” would become “She said that she was happy.”
Pronoun changes: The pronouns in the reported speech may need to be changed to reflect the change in perspective. For example, “I love chocolate” would become “She said that she loved chocolate.”
Time expressions: Time expressions in the reported speech may also need to be adjusted to reflect the change in time perspective. For example, “I am going to the store tomorrow” would become “She said that she was going to the store the following day.”
Punctuation: When converting from direct speech to indirect speech, quotation marks are removed and the reported speech is often introduced with a reporting verb, such as “said,” “told,” or “asked.” For example, “He said, ‘I love you'” would become “He told her that he loved her.”
‘What’ is used when asking for information about something
‘When’ is used when asking for time
‘Where’ is used when asking for a place
‘Who’ is used when asking for the identity of a person or people
‘Whose’ is used when asking about possession
‘Which’ is used to ask about the choice
‘Why’ is used when asking for a reason
‘How’ is used when asking about the manner or quality or condition
Definite Article “the”:
Use “the” when referring to a specific noun, both singular and plural.
Use “the” with unique objects or specific groups (e.g., the sun, the moon, the Earth, the Singapore River, the team).
Use “the” with superlatives (e.g., the biggest, the smallest, the most interesting).
Use “the” with ordinal numbers (e.g., the first, the second, the third).
Indefinite Articles “a” and “an”:
Use “a” before consonant sounds (e.g., a book, a cat, a toy).
Use “an” before vowel sounds (e.g., an apple, an elephant, an umbrella).
Use “a” or “an” to introduce a singular countable noun when mentioning it for the first time.
Use “a” or “an” with singular countable nouns to express a general idea (e.g., a dog is a loyal pet).
Omitting Articles (Zero Article): Use the acronym PUP ALAM to remember the rules
Do not use articles with Proper nouns (e.g., names of people, countries, cities, etc.).
Do not use articles with Uncountable nouns when referring to them in a general sense (e.g., water, air, rice, furniture).
Do not use articles with Plural countable nouns when referring to them in a general sense (e.g., dogs are friendly animals).
Do not use articles with Abstract nouns (e.g., love, happiness, knowledge) when referring to them in a general sense.
Do not use articles with Languages (e.g., English, Chinese, Malay, Tamil).
Do not use articles with Academic subjects (e.g., mathematics, history, biology).
Do not use articles with Meals (e.g., breakfast, lunch, dinner) unless referring to a specific instance of the meal (e.g., the lunch we had yesterday).
Quantifiers for countable nouns:
Use “many” to express a large quantity (e.g., many books, many students).
Use “a few” or “several” to express a small quantity (e.g., a few friends, several pencils).
Use “a” or “an” for singular countable nouns (e.g., a cat, an apple).
Use “some” in affirmative sentences and questions with countable plural nouns (e.g., some children, some pens).
Quantifiers for uncountable nouns:
Use “much” to express a large quantity (e.g., much water, much money).
Use “a little” or “some” to express a small quantity (e.g., a little sugar, some information).
Use “any” in negative sentences and questions with uncountable nouns (e.g., any rice, any advice).
Quantifiers for both countable and uncountable nouns:
Use “all” to express the whole quantity (e.g., all the students, all the water).
Use “none” or “no” to express the absence of any quantity (e.g., no books, none of the money).
Use “a lot of” or “lots of” to express a large quantity (e.g., a lot of cats, lots of sugar).
Quantifiers with specific amounts:
Use “one,” “two,” “three,” etc., for countable nouns (e.g., one apple, two cars, three pens).
Use “half,” “a third,” “a quarter,” etc., for both countable and uncountable nouns (e.g., half of the students, a quarter of the water).
Quantifiers for proportions:
Use “most” to express the majority (e.g., most students, most of the time).
Use “some” to express an unspecified portion (e.g., some children, some sugar).
Use “several” to express an unspecified small number (e.g., several books, several people).
The Ultimate Cheat Sheet for PSLE English Exam: Spellings
Commonly misspelt words
Commonly misspelt words
Words with -ck/ -c/k
Words with ck/ c/k
Words with x/ xc
Words with x/ xc
ie words/ ei words
Words with cc
words with cc
Words with ss
words with ss
Words with tt
words with tt
Words with l/ll
words with l
words with l
words with ll
words with ll
words with l/ll
Effective Study Techniques
Flashcards: Create flashcards to help memorize grammar rules, vocabulary, and spelling.
Practice tests: Take regular practice tests to assess your understanding and improve your test-taking skills.
Peer review: Work with classmates to review and correct each other’s grammar and spelling.
Error analysis: Analyse errors made during practice tests and learn from them to avoid making the same mistakes in the future.
How do I effectively use the cheat sheet for PSLE English grammar and spelling?
To make the most of this cheat sheet, study each section thoroughly and use the techniques mentioned for improving your grammar and spelling skills. Regular practice and consistency are key to retaining the information and enhancing your performance.
Will the cheat sheet for PSLE English grammar and spelling be enough to help me score well on the exam?
While the cheat sheet is a valuable resource, it’s essential to complement it with other study materials, such as textbooks, workbooks, and additional practice tests. The cheat sheet should serve as a guide to help you consolidate your knowledge and identify areas that need improvement.
How often should I review the cheat sheet for PSLE English grammar and spelling?
Review the cheat sheet regularly, ideally on a weekly basis. This will help you retain the information and ensure that you’re well-prepared for the examination.
This cheat sheet is an indispensable tool for students preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examination. It provides a concise and well-organized overview of essential grammar rules, spelling tips, and study techniques. By using this cheat sheet effectively and consistently, you can significantly improve your English grammar and spelling skills, ultimately leading to better performance in the PSLE.
Remember that the cheat sheet is only a starting point in your journey to academic success. It is crucial to supplement this resource with additional study materials and practice tests to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. Good luck, and happy learning!
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